Sediment contamination is a significant liability for the DoD, with overall liabilities estimated to approach $2 billion. Environmental restoration and closure of these sediment sites is a top priority for DoD. These on-going closure activities include completing feasibility studies, designing and implementing remedies, or engaging in long-term monitoring of implemented alternatives at sediment sites. SERDP and ESTCP projects support DoD restoration goals to develop sound science and effective restoration tools to characterize, remediate, manage, and monitor these sites.